Venous Skin Ulcers (Active, Healed)

Veins are responsible for carrying deoxygenated blood back to the heart from various body tissues. The venous system operates at relatively low blood pressure, relying on the contraction and expansion of skeletal muscles to propel blood past the one-way valves in the veins on its way back to the heart. The circulatory system relies on this pressure gradient to push blood through the arteries and into the veins. Any disturbance in this mechanism can lead to venous skin ulcers

Venous skin ulcers, also referred to as stasis, insufficiency or varicose ulcers are the result of malfunctioning venous valves causing pressure in the veins to increase. Venous skin ulcer is the most common etiology of lower extremity ulceration. It account for 80% of lower extremity ulceration.

Venous skin ulcers can be of 8 categories according to the CEAP classification (standing for Clinical signs, Etiological classification, Anatomical distribution and Pathophysiological dysfunction). The most important among them is active venous skin ulcer and healed venous skin ulcer

Active Venous Skin Ulcer

The classification C6 shows the active venous skin ulcers, often accompanied by trophic changes. It is the last stage with full-thickness loss of skin resulting from an accumulation of cellular metabolic waste pr and the capillary blood supply loss.

Venous Healed Skin Ulcer

The category C5 represents healed ulcer with trophic changes. Once healed, a venous skin ulcers is always a weak point in terms of recurrence of a venous skin venous skin ulcers.

According to one of the research study, the major underlying causes of venous skin ulcers in India are filariasis, tuberculosis, diabetes and atherosclerosis (hardening of vessels due to fat deposits). Furthermore, poor local hygiene adds to the problems of venous skin ulcers healing and risk of complications like infection also increases.

Causes of Venous Skin Ulcer

The root of the problem is increased pressure of blood in the veins of the lower leg. This causes fluid to ooze out of the veins beneath the skin. This causes swelling, thickening and damage to the skin. The damaged skin may eventually break down to form an ulcer.

The increased pressure of blood in the leg veins is due to blood collecting in the smaller veins next to the skin. The blood tends to collect and pool because the valves in the larger veins become damaged by a previous blood clot (thrombosis) in the vein or varicose veins. Gravity causes blood to flow back through the damaged valves and pool in the lower veins.  Some of the main causes of venous skin ulcers include:

  • Congestive Heart Failure
  • Varicose veins
  • Deep Venous Thrombosis
  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • Hypertension
  • Peripheral Vascular Disease
  • Pregnancy
  • Obesity
  • Skin infection
  • Bone Fracture
  • Knee or Hip replacement surgery
  • Soft tissue sarcomas
  • Tumors or cancers

Symptoms of Venous Skin Ulcers

Venous skin ulcers are open, often painful, sores in the skin that take more than a month to heal. he first sign of a venous skin ulcer is skin that turns dark red or purple over the area where the blood is leaking out of the vein. The skin also may become thick, dry, and itchy. They usually develop on the inside of the leg, just above the ankle. If you have a venous venous skin ulcers, you may also have:

  • Swollen ankles (edema)
  • Discoloration and darkening of the skin around the ulcer
  • Hardened skins around the ulcer
  • Leg swelling, heaviness and cramping
  • Aching, itching or tingling in your legs
  • Red, flaky, scaly and itchy skin
  • Swollen and enlarged veins (varicose veins)
  • Unpleasant and foul-smelling discharge from the ulcer
  • High temperature (fever)
  • Worsening pain

If the wound becomes infected, the infection may cause an odor and pus may drain from the wound. The area around the wound also may be more tender and red.

Precautions of Venous Skin Ulcer

People most at risk of developing a venous venous skin ulcers are those who have previously had a venous skin ulcers. You can help reduce your risk of developing a venous venous skin ulcers in several ways, such as:

  • Wearing a compression stocking
  • Losing weight
  • Taking care of your skin
  • Quit smoking
  • Eliminate alcohol use from life
  • Manage underlying diseases
  • Consume healthy diet
  • Exercise regularly
  • Avoid sitting or standing for extended periods of time
  • Avoid crossing legs while sitting
  • void extreme temperatures

Home Remedy for Venous Skin Ulcers

A variety of home remedies and treatments may continue at home to encourage healing of the Venous Skin Ulcer. There are many natural remedies for venous skin ulcers that help to control the symptoms and cure them. The home remedies for venous skin ulcers outlined below might provide relief from swelling, pain, and itching:

  • Lift your legs above the level of your heart as often as possible. For example, lie down and then prop up your legs with pillows.
  1. Wear compression stockings or bandages. These help prevent blood from pooling in your legs.
    If your venous skin ulcer is due to the varicose veins compression therapy is frequently the first and most conservative step in its management. Compression stockings work simply by squeezing the leg, thereby reducing the amount of blood and pressure in the veins. Lumino Cielo Copper Compression stockings are based on graduated pressure mechanism that helps you to increase or decrease the pressure gradients. Its knee length design is highly suitable for Indian weather that seems to be much warmer as compared to the western environment. Lumino Cielo is providing many other stockings like Flamingo Varicose Vein Stockings that are stretchable and provide adequate pressure to alleviate your symptoms.
  • Flax seed also provides good remedial measures for venous skin ulcers. To use it as a home remedy, flax seed must be ground and put into hot water to make a paste. Then it should be applied on the wound. The affected area should be sealed with plastic, and the pack has to be left overnight. Regular application of the pack helps to cure venous skin ulcers.
  • Honey is one of the best home remedies for wounds, burns, skin lesions and venous skin ulcers. A regular application of honey on the venous skin ulcers can precipitate the healing process and prevent bacterial or viral infection.
  • Chamomile tea is a good natural cure for venous skin ulcers. Alternately, the patient can make a pack by grounding chamomile flower in hot water and place the pack on the venous skin ulcers. The pack needs to remain on the affected area overnight. This is an extremely effective home remedy for venous skin ulcers.
  • Applying tea tree oil to the affected area provides a barrier that prevents any bacterial or viral infection from developing.

Treatment of Venous Skin Ulcer           

Treatment for a venous leg ulcer must begin with cleaning the wound well to remove any dead tissues. Since ulcers heal better when they are covered, you will need to dress the wound well and change the dressing on a weekly basis. With appropriate treatment, most venous leg ulcers heal within three to four months.If your ulcer doesn’t heal within a few months, your physician may advise other treatment, such as:

  • Medicines like antibiotics, anti-inflammatory etc.
  • Topical Ointments
  • Hyperbaric oxygen (oxygen delivered at high pressure) is sometimes used when facilities are available.
  • A skin graft may be advised for a large ulcer, or for one that does not heal well.
  • Surgery for varicose veins or other vein problems is advised in some cases. This may correct back pressure of blood pooling in the veins and allow an ulcer to heal.
  • Physical therapy to improve circulation, relieve edema, reduces pain improve activity of daily livings etc.

Varicose Veins

Varicose veins are gnarled, enlarged veins. Any vein may become varicose, but the veins most commonly affected are those in your legs and feet. That’s because standing and walking upright increases the pressure in the veins of your lower body.

Varicose veins may also signal a higher risk of other circulatory problems. The condition is very common, especially in women. Around 25 percent of all adults have varicose veins.


The veins have one-way valves so that the blood can travel in only one direction. The valves may get weaker if the walls of the vein become stretched and less flexible (in-elastic). A weakened valve can allow blood to leak backward and eventually flow in the opposite direction. When this occurs, blood can accumulate in the vein(s), which then become enlarged and swollen.

Any condition that puts pressure on the abdomen has the potential to cause varicose veins; for instance,

  • Pregnancy
  • Constipation
  • Tumors (rare case)

Some potential risk factors include:

  • Age over 50
  • Standing for long periods
  • Family history of varicose veins
  • Obesity
  • Use of birth control pills
  • Menopause
  • Puberty


In the majority of cases, there is no pain, but signs and symptoms of varicose veins may include:

  • Twisted, swollen, and lumpy (bulging) vein
  • Blue or dark purple colored veins
  • Aching legs
  • Sensations of heaviness usually after exercise or at night
  • Longer bleeding than normal in case of any minor trauma
  • Lipodermatosclerosis (hardening of the fat under the skin resulting in the skin shrinking)
  • Ankle edema/ swollen ankles
  • Shiny appearance of skin as compared to the normal limb
  • Leg cramps
  • Restless legs syndrome
  • Irregular whitish patches on ankles (Atrophie Blanche)


Measures can be taken to prevent varicose veins from worsening, these include:

  • Regular exercise
  • Losing weight
  • Elevating the legs
  • Avoiding prolonged standing or sitting
  • Quit smoking
  • Stop alcohol consumption
  • Improve dietary regimens
  • Wear the right pair of shoes
  • Take rest intervals during long hours of standing or sitting

 Home Remedy

Here are the few tips to manage varicose veins without any side effects:

  1. Massage gently by applying the upward strokes to relieve blood pooling
  2. Use compression stockings to prevent the backflow and facilitate the smooth flow of blood
  3. Use apple cider vinegar as a part of your daily routine. Take a glass of water and add two teaspoons of apple cider vinegar. Stir it well and drink the mixture twice a day for one month to have positive outcomes.
  4. Cayenne pepper – miracle treatment! Add one teaspoon of cayenne pepper powder to a glass of hot water and mix it well. Drink this blend thrice a day for one or two months.


If you don’t respond to home remedy or if your complaint is more severe, your physician may recommend one of these varicose vein treatments:

  1. Medications
  2. Sclerotherapy in which solution is injected in the varicose veins that closes the veins
  3. Laser treatments/ surgeries
  4. Ambulatory phlebectomy, the procedure in which smaller varicose veins are removed via a series of tiny skin punctures
  5. Endoscopic vein surgery


A tendon is tissue which attaches muscle to bone. Tendons are tough, flexible, fibrous bands of tissue that connect muscles to bones. When tendons become inflamed, irritated or suffer microscopic tears, the condition is called tendonitis. Tendons can be small, like the delicate, tiny bands in the hands, or large, like the heavy, ropelike cords that anchor the calf or thigh muscles. Inflamed tendons (tendinitis) are more likely to get ruptured.

Usually tendinitis is referred to by the body part involved, for example, Achilles tendinitis which affects the Achilles tendon or patellar tendinitis which affects the patellar tendon (jumper’s knee). Tendinitis can occur in various other parts of the body, including the elbow, wrist, finger, or thigh. It is caused by overusing a tendon or injuring it, as may happen during sport.

Tendinitis can affect people of any age, but is more common among adults who do a lot of sports. Elderly individuals are also susceptible to tendinitis because our tendons tend to lose their elasticity and become weaker as we get older.

Each year hundreds and thousands of road traffic accidents occur in South Asia. Most of the tendons got damaged due to that. They may be either partially or completely lost. While on the minor side they get inflamed due to trauma leading to tendonitis.

Tendonitis is more common among sportsman in the region of south Asia. The reason is unawareness of the correct posture for the specific sports they are involved in. Poor posture, repeated stress and increased workload on the tendon beyond its capacity ultimately results in its inflammation.

Causes of Tendonitis

Tendinitis is most often caused by repetitive, minor impact on the affected area, or from a sudden more serious injury. There are many activities that can cause tendinitis, including:

  • Gardening
  • Raking
  • Carpentry
  • Cleaning house
  • Shoveling
  • Painting
  • Scrubbing
  • Tennis
  • Golf
  • Skiing
  • Throwing and pitching

Incorrect posture at work or home or poor stretching or conditioning before exercise or playing sports also increases a person’s risk. Other risk factors for tendonitis include:

  • An abnormal or poorly placed bone or joint such as length differences in your legs that stresses soft-tissue structures.
  • Stress from other conditions like diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, psoriatic arthritis, thyroid disorders or unusual medication reactions.
  • Overuse or doing too much work when the tendons to the task taken on. Tendinitis is common in people that play and exercise hard only on weekends.
  • Occasionally an infection can cause tendinitis, especially infection from a cat or dog bite to the hand or a finger.
  • Awkward positions and postures
  • Reaching overhead frequently in case of shoulder tendonitis
  • Vibration and forceful exertion

Symptoms of Tendonitis

The main symptom of a tendon injury is pain in the affected tendon, which will usually get worse when you move it. Other symptoms can include:

  • Stiffness, which is often worse in the morning
  • Weakness in the affected area or being unable to move a joint
  • Swelling
  • Warmth or redness
  • Sensation that the tendon is grating or crackling as it moves (this may be felt on examination)
  • Lump that develops along the tendon
  • Difficulty in performing movements
  • Numbness or tingling sensations

Prevention of Tendonitis

In many cases, tendonitis can be avoided by taking a few simple precautions. Some helpful strategies include:

  • Always warm up before beginning strenuous exercise.
  • If you want to intensify your exercise level, do it gradually.
  • Use limited force and limited repetitions.
  • Stop if unusual pain occurs. Try again later and if pain recurs, stop that activity for the day.
  • Avoid activities that require prolonged periods of reaching over your head, such as painting the ceiling. If you must do this kind of work, take frequent breaks.
  • Wear shoes that fit properly, especially if you participate in a sport that requires a lot of running, such as track, cross-country or basketball.

Home Remedy for Tendonitis

  • Healthy Diet: The food you eat can play a role in tendinitis by encouraging or discouraging inflammation. Eating a nutritious diet, high in lean proteins, antioxidants, vitamin C, omega-3 fatty acids, potassium and magnesium can help you battle inflammation and perhaps improve pain caused by tendonitis.
  • Oil Massage: Massaging the affected area with olive oil can give you much relief from the pain and inflammation caused by tendonitis. It will also stimulate blood flow in and around the affected muscles. Apart from olive oil, you can also use sesame oil or mustard oil.
  • Epsom salt: Another simple way to treat foot tendonitis is to soak your foot in warm water mixed with Epsom salt. This will have wonderful affects for managing symptoms of tendonitis.
  • Chickweed: Chickweed is also a popular folk remedy for foot tendonitis. This herb has a number of vitamins and nutrients that help reduce the inflammation, pain, stiffness and tenderness caused by foot tendonitis. Make a paste of this herb and apply it on the affected area.
  • Compression: Lumino Cielo provides wider range of compression socks for runners that are suffering from Achilles tendonitis and other sports related problems.
  • Braces: Lumino Cielo best range of braces for knee arms and elbows stabilizes the affected area and provides support that assist in healing of tendonitis.

Treatment of Tendonitis 

The quicker your tendonitis is treated, the sooner you’ll recover full strength and flexibility.

  • RICE Therapy

Follow the 4 steps of RICE therapy for 2 to 3 days to help bring down swelling and support the injury:

  • Rest – stop the exercise or activities that caused the injury until you feel better
  • Ice – put an ice pack (you could use a bag of frozen peas wrapped in a towel) on the injury for up to 20 minutes every 2 to 3 hours
  • Compress – Use Lumino Cielo gloves and socks around the injury site to support it
  • Elevate – if possible, keep the injured area raised on a pillow when sitting or lying down
  • Support and Bracing

Depending on the location and severity of tendonitis, you may need temporary splinting, bracing or a sling (for tendonitis in the upper extremity). However, it is important to gently and regularly move the joint to avoid getting a stiff, or “frozen,” joint. This is particularly important for tendonitis involving the shoulder.

  • Pain Medications

Ibuprofen and other NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) have been found to help pain associated with tendonitis.

  • Physical Therapy

Physical Therapy for tendon injuries often involves a special exercise program to help stretch and strengthen the injured tendon and surrounding muscles providing helpful relief and accelerating the healing process.

  • Shock wave therapy or surgery

If there is calcific tendinitis (calcium deposits around the tendon) ESWT (extra-corporeal shock wave therapy) may help in persistent cases. A shock wave is passed through the skin, resulting in the calcium deposits breaking up.

  • Surgery

This is only rarely needed for severe problems not responding to other treatments.


A vein is a blood vessel that takes blood towards the heart. If a vein becomes inflamed, a blood clot commonly forms inside the inflamed portion. So, the term thrombophlebitis is used to mean an inflamed vein, with or without a small blood clot inside the vein. Thrombophlebitis is commonly just called phlebitis.

This is a very common condition and, although figures are difficult to find, it seems to be more common in those aged over 60 in India. It also results as a consequence of the Intravenous therapy. Intravenous therapy has the objective of administering medications, fluids, electrolytes and blood products to patients. This therapy is most often administered through peripheral venous access, the installation of which is a routine procedure performed in the hospital environment under the responsibility of the nursing staff.  Untrained and malpractice by nurses in this regard is one of the major cause of phlebitis in India.

Phlebitis frequently occurs with an intravenous cannula. Either the cannula or the infusion may have caused the inflammation. A small lump may appear days or weeks after the cannula has been removed and it can take months to resolve completely. The common sites coincide with those of common medical interventions (arm or neck with external jugular vein cannulation).

Phlebitis in a varicose vein develops as a tender hard knot in the vein. There is often erythema and bleeding may occur as the reaction extends through the vein wall. It is common with venous stasis ulcers. Both varicose vein and venous skin ulcers are common in South Asian countries

Causes of Phlebitis

Phlebitis has many causes. Some of the common causes of phlebitis are:

  • Local trauma or injury to the vein
  • Travelling, such as, long driving or plane rides
  • Insertion of intravenous catheters (IV) in hospitals, or IV induced phlebitis
  • After surgery (post-operative period), especially orthopedic procedures
  • Prolonged immobility, as in hospitalized or bed-ridden patients
  • Varicose veins
  • Underlying cancers or clotting disorders
  • Disruption of normal venous system drainage because of removal of lymph nodes, for example, after mastectomy for breast cancer
  • intravenous drug use
  • Patients with burns
  • Use of oral contraceptive pills
  • Obesity
  • Smoking cigarettes
  • Hormone replacement therapy
  • Pregnancy

 Symptoms of Phlebitis

Phlebitis is most common in the lower part of the legs, but can also affect other parts. Phlebitis, if mild, may or may not cause symptoms. Mentioned below are the complaints regarding phlebitis:

  • Tender red area
  • Bulging of the vein
  • Warmth
  • High grade fever
  • Pus discharge
  • Swelling of the involved limb
  • Pain
  • Throbbing, burning sensations over the affected area
  • Difficulty in doing daily activities

Symptoms may be worse when the leg is lowered, especially when first getting out of bed in the morning. A low-grade fever may occur. Sometimes phlebitis may occur where a peripheral intravenous line was started. The surrounding area may be sore and tender along the vein. Recovery of symptoms from superficial phlebitis can last a few weeks

Prevention of Phlebitis

It’s not that much difficult to prevent phlebitis. Following points should be kept in mind to keep a reasonable distance from phlebitis:

  • Stay active and do regular exercise
  • Use Lumino Cielo compression socks to improve your blood flow as well as to help relieve your pain and swelling.
  • Avoid bed rest for prolonged periods.
  • Raise the leg above the level of heart to help reduce swelling
  • Getting up and about as soon as possible after surgery
  • Quitting smoking
  • Press a cold flannel over the vein to ease any pain
  • Standing up, stretching, and moving your feet periodically during long flights or car rides can help to develop phlebitis

Home Remedy of Phlebitis

As people age their health can often deteriorates, and one of the common ailments that people, particularly women, suffer from is phlebitis. For those who are interested in herbal medications, it is important to understand that while herbal treatments may help eliminate symptoms, their benefits are limited to the period of time that the medication is being taken. They do not fix the underlying cause of the symptoms.  Phlebitis can be managed with following home remedies:

  • The application of heat and cold alternatively is excellent for trying to reduce swelling in the affected area and to promote relaxation.
  • Taking a hot bath can also be a good for reducing inflammation and give relief.
  • Take vitamin B supplements regularly, especially those that consist of vitamin B12, 6 and folate. These vitamins help in ameliorating superficial phlebitis due to its various actions.
  • Turmeric is an effective remedy for phlebitis. Make sure that you eat turmeric in your food, and you can even apply it to the area of the phlebitis or clot.
  • Take ginger tea. Ginger is known to be effective against clot formation and to help general circulation.
  • Flaxeed oil is beneficial for veins and improves circulation preventing phlebitis. You can use this in salads.
  • Gotu kola is a trailing plant native to Asia. Its many uses include the treatment of venous insufficiency and the healing of wounds.
  • Red vine leaf extract, strengthen blood vessels and reduce inflammation, and it is used to maintain leg circulation and improve tired, heavy, aching legs.
  • Butcher’s broom has shown decreases in leg swelling, pain and stiffness due to phlebitis thereby improving circulation through the veins.

Treatment of Phlebitis

Treatment of phlebitis may depend on the location, extent, symptoms, and underlying medical conditions. Treatment includes:

  • Anti-inflammatory drugs, such as aspirin or ibuprofen, can help lessen the pain and inflammation
  • Antibiotics can be prescribed to fight against infection.
  • Topical anti-inflammatory medications may also be beneficial, such as Diclofenac gel.
  • Catheter-directed thrombolysis.
  • Placement of inferior vena cava filters.
  • Surgery can be done in more severe cases.
  • Physical Therapy is recommended for improving the quality of life in phlebetic patients.

Peripheral Neuropathy

Your peripheral nervous system connects the nerves from the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system) to the rest of the body, including the arms, hands, feet, legs, internal organs, mouth and face. The job of these nerves is to deliver signals about physical sensations back to your brain.

Peripheral neuropathy is a disorder that occurs when these nerves malfunction because they are damaged or destroyed. This disrupts the nerves’ normal functioning. They might send signals of pain when there is nothing causing pain, or they might not send a pain signal even if something is harming you. This can be caused by injury, systemic illness, infection, or may be associated with an inherited disorder.

Peripheral neuropathy can also be categorized by the size of the nerve fibers involved, large or small. Peripheral neuropathy can involve different nerve types, including:

  1. Sensory nerves – responsible for transmitting sensations, such as pain and touch
  2. Motor nerves – responsible for controlling muscles and movements
  3. Autonomic nerves – responsible for regulating automatic functions of the body, such as blood pressure and bladder function

People whose work requires repeated motions with the wrist (such as assembly-line workers, physical laborers, and those who use computer keyboards for prolonged periods) are at greater risk of developing a mononeuropathy called Carpal tunnel syndrome. It occurs when the nerve that travels through the wrist is compressed.

Every other female in India is deficient of folic acid and Vitamin B-12 which are essential for the healthy neurons and entire nervous system. Deficiency of these essential nutrients makes Indian females more prone to peripheral neuropathy even in early age. Similarly, peripheral neuropathy is also very common in pregnant females due to not maintaining their levels of calcium, folic acid, Vitamin B-12 and other essential nutrients.

Causes of Peripheral Neuropathy

Peripheral neuropathy may be either inherited or acquired through disease processes or trauma. In some cases, no cause can be identified and this is termed idiopathic peripheral neuropathy.

  • Road traffic accidents
  • Falls
  • Sports-related injuries
  • Surgical procedures
  • Dislocated bone
  • Fractured bone
  • Repeated stress/ motion
  • Diabetes
  • Shingles (post herpetic neuralgia)
  • Vitamin deficiency, particularly B12 and folate
  • Alcohol consumption
  • Under active thyroid gland (hypothyroidism)
  • Autoimmune diseases, including lupus, rheumatoid arthritis or Guillain-Barre syndrome
  • AIDS, whether from the disease or its treatment, syphilis, and kidney failure
  • Inherited disorders, such as amyloid polyneuropathy or Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease
  • Exposure to toxins, such as heavy metals, gold compounds, lead, arsenic, mercury etc
  • Certain medications like statins, cancer therapy drugs etc.
  • Inflammation of the blood vessels (vasculitis)
  • Chronic liver disease
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Cancers or tumors
  • Hypertension

Symptoms of Peripheral Neuropathy

Peripheral Neuropathy symptoms usually start with numbness, prickling or tingling in the toes or fingers. It may spread up to the feet or hands and cause burning, freezing, throbbing and/or shooting pain that is often worse at night.

The pain can be either constant or periodic, but usually the pain is felt equally on both sides of the body in both hands or in both feet. Some types of peripheral neuropathy develop suddenly, while others progress more slowly over many years.

The symptoms of peripheral neuropathy often include:

  • A sensation of wearing an invisible “glove” or “sock”
  • Burning sensation or freezing pain
  • Sharp, jabbing, shooting, or electric-like pain
  • Extreme sensitivity to touch
  • Difficulty sleeping because of feet and leg pain
  • Loss of balance and coordination
  • Muscle weakness
  • Muscle cramping/twitching
  • Difficulty walking or moving the arms
  • Unusual sweating
  • Abnormalities in blood pressure or pulse
  • Constipation
  • Digestion difficulties
  • Diarrhea
  • Excessive sweating
  • Weak, heavy-feeling arms and legs (sometimes it may feel like your Legs or arms “lock” in place)
  • Regularly dropping things from your hands
  • A buzzing or shocking sensation
  • Thinning of the skin
  • Loss of balance and co-ordination
  • Improper gait (if in lower limb)

Symptoms like experiencing weakness or not being able to hold something, not knowing where your feet are, and experiencing pain that feels as if it is stabbing or burning in your limbs, can be common signs and symptoms of peripheral neuropathy.

The symptoms of peripheral neuropathy may depend on the kind of peripheral nerves that have been damaged. There are three types of peripheral nerves: motor, sensory and autonomic. Some neuropathies affect all three types of nerves, while others involve only one or two. The majority of people, however, suffer from polyneuropathy, an umbrella term for damage involving many nerves at the same time.

Prevention of Peripheral Neuropathy

You can prevent Peripheral neuropathy by making following healthy lifestyle choices:

  • Take care of your feet, especially if you have diabetes. Wear soft, loose cotton socks and padded shoes.
  • Regular exercise, such as walking three times a week, can reduce neuropathy pain, improve muscle strength and help control blood sugar levels. Gentle routines such as yoga and tai chi might also help.
  • Quit smoking. Cigarette smoking can affect circulation, increasing the risk of foot problems and other neuropathy complications.
  • Eat healthy meals. Good nutrition is especially important to ensure that you get essential vitamins and minerals. Include fruits, vegetables, whole grains and lean protein in your diet.
  • Avoid excessive alcohol. Alcohol can worsen peripheral neuropathy.
  • Avoid factors that may cause nerve damage, including repetitive motions, poor postures and exposure to toxic chemicals

Home Remedy for Peripheral Neuropathy

Many sufferers of peripheral neuropathy are looking towards natural remedies as a feasible and safer alternative to pharmaceuticals and as a way to promote their general health. Home remedies vary from nutritional to herbal. These include:

  • Cayenne can be used to relieve pain for those suffering peripheral neuropathy and other nerve complaints. Capsaicin is used for natural pain relief as well as its ability to promote circulation and digestion.
  • Taking primrose oil supplements improve nerve function and the symptoms of diabetic neuropathy in diabetic sufferers. The evening primrose is a rich source of omega-6 acids which might help boost the repair of damaged nerve cells and promote their regrowth.
  • Eat healthy diet rich in Vitamin B-6, B-12 as well as folic acid. These components are present in poultry and dairy products. These vitamins are important for the health of your nerves.
  • You can take warm bath to relieve mild nerve pain as one of the home remedy. In fact, warm water helps boost your blood flow to leg skin so it makes you get rid of stress and feel relaxed. Check out the water temperature before you step in. It should not be too hot or too cold.
  • You can use Lumino Cielo Gloves if you are suffering from CArpel Tunnel Syndrome i.e of the peripheral neuropathy. Mild Compression offered by this glove relieves stress and improves blood circulation. You can continue with your daily tasks with its open fingertip design. Similarly, you can use compression socks if you’ve complaints of diabetic neuropathy.
  • Proper foot care is necessary for patients with diabetic neuropathy so Lumino Cielo offers special socks that keep your feet dry and free from bad odor.

Treatment of Peripheral Neuropathy

In many cases, symptoms improve, especially if caused by a treatable condition. The disorder is uncomfortable, but treatments can be very helpful. The most important thing to determine is whether peripheral neuropathy is the result of a serious underlying condition. Many treatments can bring relief and can help you to return to your regular activities. Sometimes a combination of treatments works best.

  • Pain Medications

Over-the-counter pain medications like acetaminophen (Tylenol) and Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as aspirin and ibuprofen, can be very helpful in controlling moderate pain.

  • Prescription Medications

Many prescription pain medications can also help to control the pain of this condition. These include narcotics, some antiepileptic medicines, and some antidepressants. Other helpful prescription medicines include:

  1. COX-2 inhibitors
  2. Tramadol
  3. Mexiletine
  4. Alpha-2 adrenergic agonists
  5. Corticosteroid injections
  • Plasmapherisis is a blood transfusion in which potentially irritating antibodies are removed from the patient’s bloodstream.
  • A nerve block is an injection of anesthetics directly into the nerves.
  • Transcutaneous electronic nerve stimulation (TENS) doesn’t work for everyone, but many patients like it because it is a drug-free therapy.
  • Ergonomic casts can help you if your feet, legs, arms, or hands are affected. These casts provide support for the part of your body that’s uncomfortable. This can relieve pain. For example, the discomfort of carpal tunnel syndrome can be relieved with a cast that holds your wrists in a proper position while you sleep.
  • Physical Therapy (exercises, strength training, neuro-rehabilitation, muscle stimulations, electronic nerve stimulations etc.)

If it is caused by an underlying condition that is treatable, you might be able to stop your peripheral neuropathy by treating the larger problem. However, most often peripheral neuropathy can only be managed, not cured.


Osteoarthritis occur when the cartilage wears away, causing bones in the joints to rub against one another, which lead to increased friction, pain, swelling, and stiffness for the patient. Twenty years ago, it was largely believed that this disease only affected the geriatric population; however, an increasing number of patients in the thirty to fifty years age group are now being diagnosed with osteoarthritis. Though not fatal, osteoarthritis can lead to severe functional limitations, a decrease in the quality of life, or even cause a patient to be permanently bed-ridden.

This is the bane of modern life. It is common all over the world not just in south Asia. People all over the world are becoming inactive, using their cars and walking less. This leads to weight gain, decreased muscle and bone strength.

In India, growing obesity rates, vitamin D deficiency, jobs that involve kneeling, squatting or lifting heavy loads and untreated joint injuries are major factors that can lead to osteoarthritis, affecting almost 15 million people each year. The Indian population, in general, is more vulnerable to osteoarthritis than people from other parts of the world because of a genetic predisposition toward weaker bone and muscle strength.

Osteoarthritis is degeneration of joint cartilage and the underlying bone (weight bearing components) by varying degrees of functional limitation. It can present as localized, generalized or as erosive osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis most often occurs at the knees, hips, neck, lower back, small joints of hands and feet. Osteoarthritis (OA) is the second most common rheumatological problem and is the most frequent joint disease with prevalence of 22% to 39% in India.

Causes of Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis was long believed to be caused by the “wear and tear” of joints over time. Here are some of the factors that contribute to the development of OA:

  • Aging: The single most common cause of osteoarthritis is aging, as use of the joint over many years is likely to lead to breakdown of cartilage.
  • Family history: Genetics can play a role in bone abnormalities that result in distorted shape and problems with joint alignment. This is apparent in cases of bowed legs or double-jointed abilities, both of which are more likely to lead to development of osteoarthritis.
  • Obesity or excess weight. Weight-bearing joints are at risk for osteoarthritis in people who are significantly overweight. Because weight gain gradually increases stress on the joints, the onset of osteoarthritis symptoms may take many years to develop.
  • Diabetes: Diabetes is one of the causes leading to the osteoarthritis
  • Trauma: Trauma includes ligamentous injuries, surgery, fracture, dislocations etc.
  • Repetitive Injuries or Cumulative Traumas

Jobs that involve repetitive movements in a particular joint make OA more likely.

  • Diseases

Some diseases and conditions that increase the chance of developing OA are:

  • Gout
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Paget’s disease of the bone
  • Septic arthritis
  • Poor alignment of the knee, hip, and ankle or limb-length inequality
  • Diet: Diet may play a role. Research suggests that people with a lower level of vitamin D intake have a higher risk of OA, while in those with a low vitamin C intake, the disease may progress more rapidly.
  • Joint abnormalities: If you were born with abnormalities or developed them in childhood, it can lead to earlier and more severe osteoarthritis than usual. Perthes’ disease of the hips is an example.

Symptoms of Osteoarthritis

Symptoms of osteoarthritis vary, depending on which joints are affected and how severely they are affected. However, the most common symptoms are pain and stiffness, particularly first thing in the morning or after resting. Affected joints may get swollen, especially after extended activity. Osteoarthritis symptoms often develop slowly and worsen over time. Signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis include:

  • Sore or stiff joints, particularly the hips, knees, and lower back after inactivity or overuse.
  • Limited range of motion or stiffness that goes away after movement
  • Clicking or cracking sound when a joint bends
  • Mild swelling around a joint
  • Pain that is worse after activity or toward the end of the day
  • Sleep problems
  • Problem in sitting, standing and walking
  • Difficulty in climbing stairs or going uphill
  • Affected joints are larger than usual
  • Joints feel warm and tender

Symptoms of osteoarthritis vary greatly from patient to patient. Some patients can be debilitated by their symptoms. On the other hand, others may have remarkably few symptoms in spite of dramatic degeneration of the joints seen on X-rays. Symptoms also can be intermittent. It is not unusual for patients with osteoarthritis of the hands and knees to have years of pain-free intervals between symptoms.

Precautions for Osteoarthritis

Since there’s no cure for OA, prevention is your best choice. You can lower your risk by:

  • Staying physically active
  • Maintaining a healthy weight
  • Preventing injuries to your joints
  • Quit smoking and alcohol consumption
  • Taking natural vitamin D by sun bath
  • Consuming healthy diet rich in calcium and Vitamin C
  • Maintaining your Blood pressure
  • Exercising regularly Reducing weight

Home remedy of Osteoarthritis

Home remedies aren’t meant to replace your current treatment. But they may provide more relief for OA. Here are some of the home remedies you can try:

  • Hot and Cold Compresses: You can use both hot and cold compresses to manage joint pain due to osteoarthritis. While a hot compress will help reduce pain and stiffness, a cold compress will lessen swelling and inflammation.
  • Epsom salt bath: Epsom salt baths can provide allover relief, especially for joint pain. The magnesium in Epsom salt may help with inflammation and pain. Use 2 cups of Epsom salt in a bath of warm water at a temperature of about 102°F (38°C).
  • Support devices: Various types of assistive devices can offer added support without the need for medications. The exact devices you choose depend on the affected joints. You can use Lumino Cielo’s compression stockings, gloves and braces that can assist you in reliveing symptoms like pain, swelling and movement difficulties
  • Massage Therapy: Regularly massage the affected areas gently. This will help reduce the symptoms of osteoarthritis.
  • Take Green Tea: Green tea contains polyphenols. These compounds may help reduce inflammation and increases cartilage protection.

Treatment of Osteoarthritis

Many people believe that the effects of osteoarthritis are inevitable, so they don’t do anything to manage it. OA symptoms can hinder work, social life and family life if steps are not taken to prevent joint damage, manage pain and increase flexibility. There is no cure for OA, but treatment can help relieve symptoms and maintain joint movement.

However following treatments are usually recommended:

  • Medications

It cannot reverse damage, but it can help reduce pain. Mostly acetaminophen and ibuprofen are used

  • Intra-articular cortisone injections

Severe pain can be treated by injecting a medication, usually a corticosteroid, directly into the site of the joint.

  • Surgery

Surgery is not usually necessary, but it may help if OA affects the hips, knees, joints, and the base of the thumbs. Surgical procedure includes:

  • Arthoplasty in which the damaged parts are surgically removed and a prosthesis, or artificial joint, made of metal and plastic, is inserted
  • Arthrodesis: In arthrodesis the joint may be realigned, stabilized, or surgically fixed to promote a bone fusion. This increases stability and reduces pain.
  • Osteotomy: A procedure in which a small section of bone is removed.
  • Physical Therapy

Physical therapy plays a vital role in minimizing the symptoms and progress of OA. Use of Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, exercises, manual therapy, mobilizations and gliding proved to be very effective in treating osteoarthritis.

Leg Pain

Pain in any part of the body is a natural indication that something wrong is happening with your body.  Same is the case with the leg pain. You must not ignore this for any reason. It could be dull ache to excruciating depending upon the disturbances in the natural mechanisms.

According to one of the study in India, the prevalence of chronic leg pain is 28% leading to disability. More work and less rest is one of the major contributors for leg pain among people of India belonging to the labor community.  On the other hand people enjoying sedentary lifestyle are not safe from this condition. Their inactive lifestyle results in the Peripheral Artery diseases (PAD), atherosclerosis and so on, the consequence of which is the leg pain.

Furthermore, if you belong from South Asian countries you’re more prone to diabetes and heart diseases, the foremost symptom of which is leg pain.

Another factor is the excessive pressure on the legs due to being overweight and obese that is more prevalent among the female gender as many women do not get the time to do regular exercise or walk daily.

Lack of water, poor diet deficient in vitamins, minerals (potassium, calcium, sodium, magnesium etc.) and essential nutrients is very prevalent not only in women but also among adolescents in India that cause the symptoms of leg pain. A myriad of developmental changes occur during puberty, lack of access to the essential nutrition contributes to leg pain in the young age.

Leg Pain Causes

There are many causes of leg pain. However, only some of these are medically serious. Minor leg pain or discomfort will often disappear within a short time and can be eased or relieved with at-home treatments while severe leg pain needs medical treatment. Leg pain is an umbrella term whose causes related to your bone, muscles and nerves could be:

  • Muscle fatigue and dehydration leading to leg cramps
  • Strenuous exercise or physical activity
  • Traumatic or non-traumatic Injuries
  • Sports injuries
  • Muscle strains / muscle tear
  • Inflammations like bursitis tendinitis, arthritis
  • Stress fractures
  • Shin splints (overuse injury to the tibia or shinbone)
  • Slipped / herniated discs
  • Sciatica
  • Torn meniscus
  • Ligamentous sprains
  • Spinal Stenosis
  • Osgood Schlatter’s disease (of the growth plate of the tibia in young boys)
  • Ankylosing Spondylitis
  • Flat foot

Apart from these, certain systemic pathologies can lead to leg pain that includes:

  • Atherosclerosis
  • Deep Venous Thrombosis
  • Gout
  • Hypertension
  • Varicose veins
  • Spider veins
  • Diabetes
  • Renal/ Kidney issues
  • Benign tumors
  • malignant tumors or cancers
  • Compartment Syndrome
  • Intermittent Claudication
  • Infection
  • Paget’s Diseases
  • Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)
  • Blood Clots
  • Cerebrovascular Accident ( CVA/Stroke)
  • Chronic alcoholism
  • Skin infection
  • Anemia
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Guillain-Barré syndrome
  • Pregnancy
  • Certain medications like anti-coagulants, corticosteroids etc. 

Leg Pain Symptoms

You might complain that your leg pain is constant or intermittent in nature developing either suddenly or gradually. It may affect your whole leg or it may remain to a localized area. Pain from muscles and joints often can be felt or palpated, meaning that touching the area reproduces the pain. However, the pain may radiate from its source to another location. It can take a number of forms like

  • Aching
  • Burning
  • Cramps
  • Dull
  • Stabbing
  • Sharp
  • Tingling
  • Throbbing
  • Weakness or heaviness

Depending upon the cause and the individual situation, symptoms of leg pain may have a wide range of presentation. Some leg pain can be mild or moderate but more-severe leg pain can be annoying affecting your ability to walk or even putting weight on your legs. You may ultimately have:

  • Fever
  • Difficulty in walking
  • Difficulty in sitting
  • Sleep disturbances
  • Swelling of limb
  • Gait problems
  • History of fall
  • Difficulty in performing ADLs (Activity of Daily Livings)

Leg Pain Precautions

It’s always better to take precautions in order to keep yourself away from any disease. To avoid leg pain you must

  • Stay hydrated
  • Maintain a normal weight
  • Quit smoking or any other hazardous habit
  • Eat healthy
  • Exercise regularly 

Leg Pain Home Remedy

Acute and minor leg pain can be alleviated by some home remedies. You might be unaware of the usefulness of some common products that are present in your kitchen and do wonders for your leg pain. So, here are some of the home remedies:

  1. Apply cold compresses on the affected area by wrapping the ice-cubes inside a towel for 10-15 minutes if your leg pain is due to the strenuous activity.
  2. Massage with gentle strokes on the affected area with olive, coconut or mustard oil.
  3. Make a paste of turmeric with sesame oil and apply to relieve pain as well as swelling.
  4. Add 1 to 2 cups of apple cider vinegar to a bathtub of warm water and you’re your painful leg for 30 minutes.
  5. Add half cup of Epsom salt to a hot bath and mix it well and soak your legs in this water for 15 minutes.
  6. If your leg pain is due to the varicose veins compression therapy is frequently the first and most conservative step in its management. Compression stockings work simply by squeezing the leg, thereby reducing the amount of blood and pressure in the veins. Lumino Cielo Copper Compression stockings are based on graduated pressure mechanism that helps you to increase or decrease the pressure gradients. Lumino Cielo also provides Flamingo Varicose Vein Stockings that are stretchable and provide adequate pressure to alleviate your symptoms.

Leg Pain Treatment

Treatment for leg pain is individualized depending upon the exact diagnosis.  Never ignore leg pain that does not seem to be going away, or if it is accompanied by any of the other symptoms mentioned above. Doing so could be dangerous. With some injuries and arthritic conditions, leg pain gradually resolves as the muscle or joint warms up during activity

Some patients need surgery while others only need conservative management for their leg pain like:

  1. RICE (Rest, Icing, Compression’s and Elevations)

Take appropriate rest to relieve your pain

Do icing to inhibit pain receptors

Use Lumino Cielo Compression stockings to reduces edema

Elevate your limb to avoid pooling of blood and improving venous return to heart

  1. Prescribed Medications (to relieve diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis etc.)
  2. OTC (over the counter) Medications like Ibuprofen, acetaminophen, naproxen sodium and so on.
  3. Physical Therapy (exercises, electrotherapy, mobilizations, manipulations)

Pregnancy, Motherhood and Leg cramps

While you await the arrival of your precious baby, you may be feeling new kinds of aches and pains. Despite the fact that morning sickness, fatigue, and back pain are frequent complaints during pregnancy, leg and foot problems are just as common. Leg pain during the second or third trimester of pregnancy may be the result of added weight, changing body shape, and biomechanics. Sciatica is the most common cause of leg pain during pregnancy because your enlarged uterus can press down on the sciatic nerve, which runs from your lower back to your feet. Some common pregnancy aches include swollen and painful feet and legs, and calf cramps. Some females also report radiating pain down the back of the legs and hip pain.

During pregnancy your uterus becomes heavier as your baby grows, which means that your legs are working harder to carry you. Another possible cause is that the uterus relies on the major vein that returns blood to the heart slows that process, leading to heavy, sluggish limbs that are more prone to cramp. This all combines affect the muscle tone in your legs making them more susceptible to leg pain.

Muscle cramps during pregnancy are one of the most common discomforts experienced by approximately half of all expecting mothers.  The majority of muscle cramps during pregnancy occurs in the lower extremities, particularly in the calves that happen abruptly and is mostly commonly experienced at night. Cramping can occur as a result of too much phosphorus and too little calcium in the body. Muscle cramps during pregnancy are most likely associated with one or more of the following:

  • Carrying the extra weight from pregnancy – It may be that your leg muscles get tired because they’re carrying around the extra weight of pregnancy, and then cramp when you’re resting.
  • Dehydration
  • Change in blood flow or circulation
  • Lack of stretching before exercise or extensive use
  • Nerve compression
  • Lack of minerals – leg cramps is a sign that you need more calcium, magnesium and potassium

It may help to know that these feelings are normal, though they are uncomfortable. If, however, the calf pain is continuous, and if your leg is red and hot to the touch, call your doctor immediately. This is to ensure that your leg pain is not a sign of a blood clot.

Your hormones and body changes have some effect too. Your body is getting ready for birth and so some of your joints and ligaments are loosening up to make delivery possible. All of these changes added together can cause leg pain as an early pregnancy symptom.

During pregnancy, the body needs extra power to meet the added energy demands. Along with heart, kidney and lungs, the body muscles, especially leg muscles need extra energy to bear the increasing body demands of both pregnant woman and the fetus. When there is slight imbalance between energy demand and supply, leg pain sets in.

Hand and Wrist Pain

Human hand is made up of 27 bones and 15 joints, which together enable movement of hands, fingers and wrist. People may come across hand pain and aches that can be temporary or long lasting.

Everyone has had a minor problem with a finger, hand, or wrist. Most of the time our body movements do not cause problems, but it’s not surprising that symptoms occur from every day wear and tear or from overuse. Finger, hand, or wrist problems can also be caused by injuries or the natural process of aging.

However, if hand and wrist pain persists or is accompanied by tingling, numbness, or weakness that interferes with important daily tasks, such as gripping items or typing on a keyboard, then an underlying medical condition might exist.

Your fingers, hands or wrists may burn, sting or hurt, or feel tired, sore, stiff, numb, tingly, hot, or cold. Maybe you can’t move them as well as usual, or they are swollen. Perhaps your hands have turned a different color, such as red, pale or blue. A lump or bump might have appeared on your wrist, palm, or fingers.

Hand and wrist pain are common complaints. These are often caused by sprains or fractures from sudden injuries. But wrist pain can also result from long-term problems, such as repetitive stress, arthritis and carpal tunnel syndrome. Hand pain can happen for many reasons, from accidents to conditions that are ongoing. It can often be treated so that your symptoms ease up.

Hand and wrist pain are associated with each other. Both have almost the same etiology and can be differentially diagnosed on the basis of examination procedures.

Hand and wrist pain are very prevalent among the office workers, nursing staff, laborers, pregnant ladies and sportsman in India. Different factors contribute in the development of these painful conditions.

Cause of Hand and Wrist Pain

Hand and wrist almost shares the same causes. The major etiological factors comprises of:

  • Fractures, dislocation or injury: A fracture or dislocation of one of the bones in the hand is a common cause of hand pain. This is usually associated with severe pain, and often there is inflammation and tenderness in the area.
  • Gout: Gout is a type of arthritis that involves the formation of monosodium urate crystals in the body, due to the accumulation of excessive uric acid in the bloodstream. When these crystals are formed near or inside the joints of the fingers or wrist, they can cause severe hand and wrist pain.
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome: Carpal tunnel syndrome involves compression of the median nerve that carries messages of sensation and movement to the hand. This can lead to sensations of pain, numbness, or tingling in the hands and fingers. In most cases the thumb, index finger, middle finger and ring finger, are affected. It tends to develop gradually and is often worse at night-time.
  • Osteoarthritis: Hand pain can be caused by osteoarthritis, which is a condition involving inflammation, swelling and bending of the joints. It can affect any joint in the body and commonly affects the joints at the middle and end of the fingers and the base of the thumb, leading to pain in these areas.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis: Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease that involves the destruction of the cells that line and support the joints, which can lead to pain and inflammation in the hands and wrists. Hand pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis is often described as throbbing or aching and is usually worse in the morning, or when the joints have been inactive for an extended period of time.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Lupus is an autoimmune disease that can lead to inflammation and destruction of the joints in the wrist and fingers, which can lead to wrist hand pain.
  • Ganglion: Ganglions most frequently develop on the wrists, hands, and fingers, causing pain.
  • De Quervain’s disease: De Quervain’s disease is a painful condition that affects tendons where they run through a tunnel on the thumb side of the wrist. The sheath surrounding the tendon becomes swollen and thick, and moving your thumb will be very painful.
  • Tenosynovitis: Tenosynovitis is pain and inflammation of the sheath that surrounds a tendon. It’s a relatively rare cause of hand pain that can affect the wrist or the fingers.

Other causes include:

  • Diabetes
  • Hypertension
  • Cervical Vertebrae problems (radiculopathy, degenerative disc diseases, etc)
  • Muscle dystrophy
  • Obesity
  • Repetitive work
  • Sports participation

Symptoms of Hand and Wrist Pain

Symptoms of hand and wrist pain may vary, depending on what’s causing it. For example, osteoarthritis pain is often described as being similar to a dull toothache, while carpal tunnel syndrome usually causes a pins-and-needles feeling, especially at night. The precise location of your hand and wrist pain also can give clues to what might be causing your symptoms. Usually hand and wrist pain may be accompanied by the following symptoms:

  • Swollen fingers
  • Difficulty making a fist
  • Difficulty in gripping objects
  • Numbness or tingling sensation in the hands
  • Pain, numbness or tingling that gets worse at night
  • Sudden, sharp pain in the hand
  • Swelling or redness around the wrist
  • Warmth in a joint near the wrist
  • Difficulty in combing, writing other activities of daily living

Precautions of Hand and Wrist Pain

It’s impossible to prevent the unforeseen events that often cause hand and wrist injuries, but these basic tips may offer some protection:

  • Adopt good working posture
  • Exercise regularly
  • Reduce weight
  • Quit alcohol and smoking
  • Take healthy diet and adequate amount of calcium daily
  • Light up your living space to prevent any injury
  • If you spend long periods at a keyboard, take regular breaks. When you type, keep your wrist in a relaxed, neutral position.
  • Wear wrist guards for high-risk activities, such as football, snowboarding and rollerblading.
  • Avoid sleeping on your hands, which may decrease blood flow to your fingers.

Home Remedy of Hand and Wrist Pain

Not every cause of wrist pain requires medical treatment. For a minor wrist injury, you may need to try some home remedies like:

  • Icing: Ice your wrist for 10 to 15 minutes at a time, once or twice an hour. Cold therapy is good for those suffering from hand arthritis. You can use ice packs, a plastic bag filled with crushed ice or a bag of frozen vegetables.
  • Heat Therapy: Heat can also ease pain by relaxing muscles. Soak your hands and wrists in warm to hot water for 12 to 15 minutes before you go to bed each night.
  • Apple cider vinegar: Apple cider vinegar has anti-inflammatory and alkaline-forming properties that help reduce pain and stiffness in the hands from arthritis.

Drink a glass of warm water mixed with one tablespoon of organic apple cider vinegar and some honey every day.

  • Honey and Cinnamon: The combination of honey and cinnamon powder is a good natural way to treat hands and wrist pain. Mix one tablespoon of honey and one-half teaspoon of cinnamon powder.

Eat this mixture every morning on an empty stomach for several weeks or until you get encouraging results.

  • Massage: Do gentle massage on the painful area with upward strokes.
  • Gloves: If your peripheral neuropathy is due to CTS (carpal tunnel syndrome), osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis, the use of gloves can be effective. Lumino Cielo provides highly specialized gloves that are effective in relieving pain, stiffness and swelling.

Treatment of Hand and Wrist Pain

Treatments for hand and wrist problems vary greatly, depending on the type, location and severity of the injury, as well as on your age and overall health. Treatment mainly comprises of:

  1. RICE therapy (rest, ice, compression and elevation) for pain and swelling.
  2. Wear a wrist splint at night to keep your wrist in a neutral position and relieve pressure on your median nerve.
  3. Over the counter medications like Ibuprofen, acetaminophen etc.
  4. Prescription medicines with strong analgesia
  5. Surgery if pain is not relieved conservatively
  6. Physical therapy (to improve muscle strength, circulation, movement, reducing inflammation, pain and chances of muscle dystrophy)

Deep Venous Thrombosis

There are both superficial and deep veins in the limbs or extremities (arms and legs). A blood clot in the deep veins is a concern because it can cause life-threatening complications. A deep vein thrombus is a blood clot or thrombus that develops in deep vein usually in leg; here they pass through the center of leg, surrounded by muscles, less commonly Deep Venous Thrombosis occurs in deep veins of arm or pelvis.  A blood clot is a clump of blood that is in a gelatinous, solid state.

Deep Venous Thrombosis is primarily related to the stasis of blood flow, vascular wall damage, activation of clotting system and hypercoaguable state.

Blood passing through the deeper veins in the calf or thighs flows relatively slow than from a solid clot which becomes wedged in the veins.

Deep Venous Thrombosis continues to be under diagnosed and under treated. Awareness among Indians regarding this potentially life-threatening disease is low. It is especially high in hospitalized patients, in a majority of whom it is clinically silent.

Deep vein thrombosis can be very serious because blood clots in your veins can break loose, travel through your bloodstream and lodge in your lungs, blocking blood flow (pulmonary embolism).

There is increased risk of deep venous thrombosis among pregnant ladies in India. Increased hormone levels and a slower blood flow as your uterus expands and restricts blood flowing back from your lower extremities, contribute to this risk. Furthermore, bad lifestyle, poor nutrition and more use of saturated fats enhances the risk among women. This elevated risk continues until about six weeks after giving birth. Being on bed rest or having a C-section also increases your risk of having DVT. Highest incidence is in puerperium especially just after childbirth.

Causes of Deep Venous Thrombosis

Deep vein thrombosis can develop if you have certain medical conditions that affect how your blood clots. It can also happen if you don’t move for a long time, such as after surgery or an accident, or when you’re confined to bed. Here are some of the causes of Deep Venous Thrombosis

  • Patient Factors:
  • Age> 40
  • Obesity
  • Varicose veins or venous thrombophlebitis
  • Previous Deep Venous Thrombosis
  • Use of oral contraceptives
  • Hormone replacement therapy
  • Pregnancy: due to hormonal changes and pressure on veins by fetus
  • Dehydration: increase blood viscosity
  • Immobility: Stasis of blood
  • Long distance travel
  • Smoking (especially heavy usage)
  • Hospitalization
  • Positive Family History
  • Surgical Conditions: The common surgical causes of deep venous thrombosis includes:
  • Abdominal, pelvis, orthopedic surgery to lower limb
  • Increased use of central venous line has caused more involvement of upper limbs in deep venous thrombosis.
  • Medical Conditions :
  • Myocardial Infarction / Heart Attack
  • Heart failure / Congestive heart failure
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Malignancy or its treatment
  • Nephrotic syndrome
  • Behcets syndrome
  • Homocysteinemia
  • Major injuries/ paralysis
  • Hematological Disorders
  • Anti-Coagulants Deficiencies
  • Increased Clotting factors

Symptoms of Deep Venous Thrombosis

About half of all DVT cases do not cause symptoms. The symptoms you feel can depend on the location and size of your blood clot. However, DVT mainly affects the large veins in the lower leg and thigh, most often on 1 side of the body. The clot can block blood flow. Deep venous thrombosis signs and symptoms can include:

  • Swelling in the affected leg
  • Leg pain
  • Calf pain
  • Cramping or soreness
  • Red or discolored skin on the leg
  • A feeling of warmth in the affected leg
  • Difficulty in sitting and standing
  • Problems in walking
  • Fatigue and malaise

Precautions for Deep Venous Thrombosis

Preventive measures might be used before and after any procedure or event that increases your risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). You can lower your risk of having DVT by making a few lifestyle changes. These measures include:

  • Quit smoking to lower your risk of blood clots
  • Exercise your lower leg muscles to improve circulation in your legs. Point your toes up toward your head so that the calves of your legs are stretched, then relax. Repeat. This exercise is especially important to do when you are sitting for long periods of time.
  • Wearing compression stockings can prevent swelling and lower your chance of developing clots. They reach just below your knee or right above it. You’ll most likely wear these every day. You can use highly designed compression stockings offered by Lumino Cielo. It will not only make you feel comfortable but also relieves your pain.
  • Keep your blood pressure under control
  • Lose your weight
  • Stretch your legs and feet while you’re sitting; this keeps your blood moving steadily in your calves.
  • Give up alcohol
  • Raise your leg whenever you’re resting. This helps to relieve the pressure in the veins of the calf and stops blood and fluid pooling in the calf itself.

Home Remedy of Deep Venous Thrombosis

Although no natural remedies are there which can cure DVT, but some can help in the process of blood thinning and prevention of the disease. Some of the home remedies for DVT are:

  • Ginger: Drink ginger tea 2 or 3 times a day. Ginger plays a great role in treating DVT. A natural salicylate, it can block vitamin K and thin the blood. It also boosts blood circulation in arteries and veins. Plus, it helps prevent high cholesterol, which can cause plaque buildup and inhibit circulation.
  • Cayenne Pepper: This natural blood thinner also helps in the treatment of DVT. The compound capsaicin in cayenne pepper promotes blood circulation and helps prevent blood clots. It also strengthens the arteries and capillaries.
  • Vitamin-E: Eat vitamin E-rich foods like walnuts, almonds, hazelnuts, sunflower seeds, olive oil, spinach, broccoli, and avocado. Vitamin E contains antiplatelet and anticoagulant properties that help prevent blood clots.
  • Turmeric: Apply turmeric paste on the affected part. This wonderful spice also has blood-thinning properties and can help improve circulation

Treatment of Deep Venous Thrombosis

DVT treatments focus on keeping the clot from growing. In addition, treatment will attempt to prevent a pulmonary embolism and lower your risk of having more clots. Your physician or vascular surgeon can usually treat DVT with medications or minimally invasive procedures. Rarely, surgery may be required.

  • Medications: Medications are used to thin your blood, such as heparin and warfarin. This makes it harder for your blood to clot.
  • Clot Busters: These drugs are either given through an IV line to break up blood clots or through a catheter placed directly into the clot.
  • Filters: You might need to have a filter put inside the large abdominal vein called the vena cava if you aren’t able to take blood thinners. This form of treatment helps prevent pulmonary embolisms by stopping clots from entering your lungs.
  • Physical Therapy: Physical therapy depends upon the condition of the patient. For some patients it’s useful while for others it’s contraindicated.

Benefits of Compression Socks

Compression socks are a product that provides therapeutic compression to promote circulation in the legs and treat various disease conditions. Compression socks or stockings can be found on the legs of a wide swath of the population, from pilots, flight attendants, runners, and nurses to pregnant women, people recovering from surgery, and people otherwise at risk for blood clots in their legs. Compression stockings come in a variety of sizes, lengths and colors. They’re also available with different strengths of compression. Your legs will be measured to see what size stockings you need. These socks are made of a strong, elastic fabric that often runs from the foot to the thigh at different pressures based on the amount of pressure required.

Mentioned below are some of the benefits of compression socks:

  • Varicose and Spider Veins: If you suffer from varicose veins and spider veins, you know firsthand the frustration of dealing with fatigue, swelling, itching, burning, and leg cramps. Compression socks help reduce the symptoms of painful varicose veins and when worn faithfully, they slow the progression of vein disease. However, compression alone does not correct the underlying vein problem.
  • Overcomes the Gravitational Affect: Compression socks promote the venous blood flow from the feet back toward the heart overcoming the effects of gravity. Medical grade graduated compression is designed to be stronger in the feet and gradually diminish in pressure as they extend up the calf into the thigh. Properly designed and fitted compression socks prevent venous blood pooling in the legs and feet, improve leg symptoms, and decrease the risk of blood clots.
  • For Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): The clearest benefit is for people with certain leg problems or at risk for blood clots in the legs, known as deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Many factors can increase the risk of these clots, including prolonged bed rest (such as after surgery), sitting for long periods (such as on a plane), use of birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy, pregnancy, family history of DVT, inflammatory bowel disease, and certain genetic clotting disorders. Compression stockings are also sometimes used in people who have an acute DVT, to prevent a group of symptoms known as post-thrombotic syndrome that includes leg pain and swelling.
  • Runner and Athletes: Compression socks have been making their way onto plenty of runners and athletes from other sports to help them possibly improve their performance.  Compression sleeve or sock helps you when you’re running. But when it comes to post-exercise it reduces delayed onset muscle soreness. There’s also a psychological benefit to wearing items like a compression calf sleeve, tight, and other gear because you “feel” like you’re doing something to actively help your recovery and boost your performance for the next run. That’s the reason  why compression clothing is mostly used by men and women in attempt to recover from a hard run or workout, along with after races, as quickly as possible.
  • For CrossFit: Just like running, CrossFit puts a lot of strain in your legs. But unlike running strain is felt by the leg not on a regular constant pace but sudden movements, stretches and pulls. The benefits that you get from compression socks are practically the same as that for running. Compression socks lessen the instances of cramps and help your leg recover faster from the leg strain.
  • Better circulation: Still wondering how compression socks work? This may help it make sense: compression socks involve graduated compression in its design. Because of this, the varying degrees of tightness along the length of the compression sock, blood flow is improved. The compression decreases as the sock goes up the leg. This allows for better circulation that doesn’t get pinched off by the tightness of the compression sock.
  • Prevent Stagnation and Poling of Blood: If you’re sitting for long periods of time, compression socks can help. On the other hand compression socks have been proven to limit swelling, especially in people who spend all day on their feet. They are elastic and provide measured pressure against the legs so as to reduce the size of distended veins, increase blood flow and prevent the stagnation of blood in the veins and the pooling of fluids in extracellular spaces.
  • Prevent Backflow of Blood: Another benefit of compression stockings prevents blood from flowing backward and causing congestion in blood vessels. This congestion can lead to an increased risk for blood clots and other serious health complications.
  • Treat Lymphedema: Edema, or leg swelling, is a problem that thousands of people suffer from needlessly. Using compression socks is the best way to reduce the swelling without medications. Compression socks also stimulate the venous and lymphatic drainage of the legs.
  • For Pregnant Ladies: Many women experience swollen, heavy legs during their pregnancies. One in two pregnant women will develop varicose veins as a result of the swelling. The moment a woman conceives, her body begins to change. During pregnancy hormones dilate the blood vessels to carry extra blood for the baby. With a family history, this is when valves in veins may start to fail. Compression socks reduce that and can slow down the process with future pregnancies.
  • Treating Arthritis: Arthritis can make you feel cold and achy. Compression socks provide you warmth and stabilize the joint during activity, reducing strain and allowing it to stay active while easing pain.
  • For Travel: Compression socks are best for travel because of the walking and waiting in the airport that you do. Compression socks are recommended for people who travel abroad, not just the elderly but people who have a pre-existing problem or prone to develop leg problems.

Moreover, the benefits of compression stockings are dependent on wearing the stockings properly for example, if the socks were worn wrinkled that could lead to new or worse problems, since bunching or wrinkling can exert excess pressure on the skin. Typically, the stockings are safe and wearing them results in few or no complications, provided they’re worn smoothly against the leg, without any folds.